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海洋國家與陸地國家終需一戰--地緣政治與文明的海洋史

君顏甚厚,汝母知否?
庫奇馬講述烏克蘭當局在1991年時如何欺騙民眾

https://big5.sputniknews.cn/politics/202107141034070230/

政治
03:19 2021年07月14日

烏克蘭前總統列昂尼德•庫奇馬在接受History Lab的Youtube頻道上的採訪時稱,烏克蘭人民在 1991 年宣佈國家獨立的全民公決之前被騙了。

他稱,「我們多多少少騙了這些人。當時我們說,烏克蘭養活整個俄羅斯,我們考慮到了所有按世界價格生產的烏克蘭產品,而沒有算俄羅斯提供給我們的東西。」

這位前總統稱,當俄羅斯開始以世界價格進行石油和天然氣交易時,謊言就被打臉了。這導致烏克蘭出現惡性通貨膨脹,因為在蘇聯解體之前,烏克蘭只需「連茶水錢都不到」的費用就能買這些資源。

據他介紹,烏克蘭在獨立後進行了自我毀滅,並浪費了所有科學、技術和人員潛力。
他以軍火貿易的情況為例,指出,烏克蘭曾經是世界上主要的軍火供應商,但後來「不戰」就丟掉了自己的地位。

庫奇馬強調,「沒有足夠的智慧、意志力……總的來說,是不夠聰明。但卻不是那些作決定和接受決定的人為此付出代價。」

1991 年 12 月 1 日,烏克蘭在舉行首任總統選舉的同日,也舉行了關於確認該國獨立的全民公投。結果,90.32%的公民投票支持烏克蘭獨立。
普京:俄羅斯聯邦和烏克蘭之間出現的隔閡是一個巨大的、共同的災難和悲劇

https://big5.sputniknews.cn/russia/202107121034062102/

俄羅斯
22:15 2021年07月12日
(更新 03:30 2021年07月13日)

俄羅斯總統弗拉基米爾•普京稱,他認為,俄羅斯聯邦和烏克蘭之間出現的隔閡是一個巨大的、共同的災難和悲劇。

佩斯科夫:普京在德國刊物刊登文章是針對歐洲讀者
© SPUTNIK / SERGEY ILYIN

佩斯科夫:普京在德國刊物刊登文章是針對歐洲讀者

普京的文章《關於俄羅斯人和烏克蘭人的歷史統一》已被發表在克里姆林宮的官網上。
普京寫道:「我想立即強調,我認為,近年來在俄羅斯和烏克蘭之間出現的隔閡,實際上是一個歷史和精神空間的部分間內容,是大的、共同的不幸,也是一場悲劇。」

普京還認為,俄羅斯聯邦和烏克蘭之間的隔閡——是不同時期錯誤的後果,也是致力於破壞統一的勢力作用的結果。

普京寫道:「首先,這是我們自己在不同時期犯下的錯誤的後果,也是那些一直試圖破壞我們團結的勢力有目的的工作的結果。有個公式的應用自古以來就為人所知:分而治之,這沒甚麼新鮮的。憑此,試圖在國家問題上做文章,在人們之間製造不和。作為超級任務就是:分化同一個民族,然後讓他們手足相殘。」

此外普京表示,俄羅斯對與烏克蘭的對話持開放態度,並有意討論最複雜的問題。

他在自己題為《關於俄羅斯人和烏克蘭人的歷史統一》文章中寫道:「俄羅斯對與烏克蘭的對話持開放態度,並有意討論最複雜問題。但對我方來說,重要的是要明白,夥伴捍衛自己的國家利益,不為他人服務,不是某人手中與我們鬥爭的工具。」

普京總結稱:「我相信,正是與俄羅斯合作,烏克蘭才能真正擁有主權。我們的精神、人類和文明聯繫通過幾個世紀形成,可以追溯到相同的源頭,經過共同考驗、成就和勝利的錘鍊。我們的親屬關係代代相傳,它在我們的心中,在現代俄羅斯和烏克蘭人民的記憶中,在將我們數以百萬計的家庭聯繫在一起的血緣紐帶中。我們在一起,以前和將來都會更加強大和成功,因為我們是同一個人民。」
goodversion wrote:
澳洲出動軍隊做硬封城https...(恕刪)
金小胖也懂大外宣了。

君顏甚厚,汝母知否?
印度在模里西斯的阿加萊加島
搞了一個大型機場
被當地居民懷疑是軍事基地
當地人離開了
就回不去
這算是強佔嗎?
跟模里西斯的狄亞哥賈西亞島
被英美強佔一樣




EXCLUSIVE
News
|
Investigation

Agaléga islanders fear for future due to secret Indian navy base
Inhabitants of the remote Mauritian island of Agaléga fear expulsion, can see parallels with Diego Garcia.


By Yarno Ritzen and Al Jazeera Investigative Unit
3 Aug 2021

The 300 or so people on the Mauritian island of Agaléga fear for their future as they feel the island is likely to become home to an Indian naval facility.

An investigation by Al Jazeera’s Investigative Unit (I-Unit) reveals how, over the last two years, India has been building a 3km (1.8 miles) airstrip and two large jetties designed for military purposes.

Military analysts confirmed Al Jazeera’s findings, saying the island will likely be used by the Indian navy for maritime intelligence and reconnaissance missions.

KEEP READING
Evidence points to secret Indian navy base on Mauritian island
The Chagos Islands: Colonialism on trial at the ICJ
UN court says Britain should ‘rapidly’ give up Chagos Islands
UK urged to end ‘colonial administration’ of Chagos Islands
Rumours and media reports about the military base first surfaced in 2018 but both Mauritius and India have denied that the construction project is for military purposes and say the infrastructure is only for the benefit of the islanders.

Do you have information on wrongdoing or want to share another tip? Contact Al Jazeera’s Investigative Unit on +974 5080 0207 (WhatsApp/Signal), or find other ways to reach out on our Tips page.

The Agaléens, who mostly live off of fishing and coconut farming, do not believe the official account that the $250m construction project is for them.

“We asked for an airport and hospital, but we didn’t ask for such a big airport,” Franco Poulay, who lives on the island, told Al Jazeera.

“When we see this airport, we are worried.”

His brother, Arnaud Poulay, echoed his remarks.

“We do need a port, on the other hand, we can also see it’s not for our benefit. Today no Agaléens are being trained to work on the new port, so it’s clear that it will be Indian workers who will be employed on the port,” Arnaud added.

“Our kids, our youth who are unemployed, are not being trained.”


A comparison of satellite pictures shows the increase of activity on the sparsely populated island (Maxar)
Diego Garcia
The Agaléens fear their fate will echo that of the residents of Diego Garcia, a Mauritian island the country’s former colonial ruler, the UK, leased to the US in 1966.

In 1971, it was turned into a US military base and residents of the island were forcibly resettled elsewhere.

Today, the base is home to 15 separate US military commands and serves surface fleets, submarine units and long-range bomber planes.

Diego Garcia, part of the Chagos archipelago has also been part of a longstanding dispute between the UK and Mauritius. Earlier this year, a United Nations maritime court decided the UK has no sovereignty over the archipelago, but the UK said it would return it only when it no longer serves defence purposes.

Those who lived on Diego Garcia before it was turned into a military base have been fighting for their right to return ever since.



Diego Garcia, the largest island in the Chagos Archipelago and site of a major US military base in the middle of the Indian Ocean leased from Britain in 1966 [Reuters]
The people on Agaléga point at what they say are efforts to make life on the island harder, such as making it mandatory for pregnant women to give birth of Mauritius, preventing cement from being brought to the island and the fact that they are currently not allowed to bring cattle to the island.
Those who left the island say their return is made almost impossible.

Those who wish to travel to and from Agaléga take a ship that makes the journey every three months from the main island of Mauritius. However, Agaléens have complained that the voyage has become more problematic.

“Since 2013, we’ve wanted to go back,” 67-year-old Rosalette Jasmin told Al Jazeera.

“My two brothers are there, my nephews and nieces are there too. I want to go see them, [but] every time I go to enquire about tickets, they tell me it is fully booked, try next time,” she said.

“Always, next time, until you get tired of it and discouraged.”

The islanders also point to a government plan to have those who wish to travel to the island pay a hefty government fee for medical emergencies in case something happens to them when they are on the island.

After protests, that plan was shelved, but it remains hard for those wanting to go back to Agaléga to get there.

“It’s so heartbreaking to see your island being exploited by others whereas those of us who were born there, we cannot go to our island just for a short while to breathe in the air where we were born,” Alix Calapin, an Agaléen now living on Mauritius’ main island told Al Jazeera.

Calapin has been wanting to go back to the island for years but has also always been told the ship she wants to travel on has no spots left.



Construction on the northern tip of the northern island has changed it significantly [social media]
According to Samuel Bashfield, a researcher at the National Security College at the Australian National University, there are similarities and differences to the Diego Garcia situation.
“In Agaléga, there is potential for a similar type of event happening,” he told Al Jazeera, though he does not think Mauritius will cede sovereignty of the island to India.

“Both governments have said that they’re not going to deport the people and that the people will still be able to live there.”

However, things will definitely change once the base, from which India almost certainly will launch maritime patrol missions using its aircraft, is finished according to Bashfield.

“Operating a military base has certain ramifications, certain implications,” he said.

“No doubt life will be very different on the island, once this military base is finished. You don’t want people walking through a military base, that’s for sure.”

The Investigative Unit contacted all those involved in this investigation.

The Mauritian government restated its position that “there is no agreement between Mauritius and India to set up a military base in Agaléga.”

It added that by “military base”, it means: “A facility owned and operated by, or for, the military for sheltering of military equipment and personnel, on a permanent basis and for military operations.”

Mauritius also said the government has no intention of displacing people living on the island.

India’s Ministry of Defence and Ministry of External Affairs did not respond to our requests for comment.

SOURCE: AL JAZEERA
nomo333 wrote:
印度在模里西斯的阿加(恕刪)

如果是老共佔領人家的島
這件事就大條了
全世界撻伐
君顏甚厚,汝母知否?
絕代蝴蝶 wrote:
十年一夢,阿富汗共和...(恕刪)


正在看這個文章,跟我猜的一樣,拿台灣來類比不太對,但是我們自己要先有自覺

【曾親訓阿富汗國防軍之美軍軍官所見】
本文轉載自美軍退役的陳先生,他曾經前往阿富汗擔任訓練軍官。內文談及阿富汗戰爭、訓練、文化上的困難,以及為何阿富汗政府軍會是這個樣子的。

「對於目前阿富汗的局勢我並沒有發表太多的意見,因為很難不牽扯到政治,而我並不想要把這個議題變成政治的討論。

很多人都知道我曾奉命檢視阿富汗陸軍的訓練並在稍後成為阿富汗陸軍的顧問。反恐戰爭消耗掉了我半數的人生,所以結果對我個人來說至關重要。 在任何的海外軍事行動裡,不論行動的動機為何,撤離是必然發生的步驟。而撤離的原因則是被拿來衡量誰是勝利者與誰是輸家,所以撤離的方式對這個勝負觀感的判別有很大的影響。

由於我曾駐紮該地,瞭解這場戰爭是怎麼打的,我覺得我有義務提供一些個人觀察並釐清一些誤解。

大約12年前,美國與阿富汗政府高層決定阿富汗急需訓練出約10萬人的新軍。就跟世上其他行業一樣,你可以訓練出大量的人數或是高素質的人力,但絕不是兩者皆得。除非你願意投入更多的金錢與資源。

如何佈署阿富汗部隊的戰略方針很簡單,當時塔利班相對弱小,極少的情況下會以大於連級單位的人數出擊,阿富汗陸軍則是以營級或更大的單位人數佈署,佔領並控制重要的地形地貌,某種程度上這些阿富汗陸軍單位是給塔利班的誘餌,這些部隊受過訓練並且在遭受到攻擊時足以自保。他們的作用是原地固守並且等待空中支援火力,北約部隊或是阿富汗特戰單位的到來殲滅敵人。

在反游擊戰的概念裡,政府軍並須保持最少3比1的人數優勢來對抗游擊隊,而游擊隊保有戰場主動權與出奇不意的優勢來決定戰鬥的時間與地點。而把美軍的空中火力支援抽掉後,阿富汗正規軍與特戰也等於失去了對塔利班戰鬥的優勢,而很多人會問,美國在阿富汗作戰的20年間,為何不幫助阿富汗政府建構強而有力的空軍?答案是阿富汗人民的識字率在10%至20%間,所以非常難找到合適的人來做飛行與維修支援的訓練。同樣的問題也發生在建構砲兵部隊上。

我曾親手訓練過阿富汗六個步兵營與兩個機動打擊營。在間接火力支援配備上,這些單位配有俄製82mm與SPG-9無後座力炮。 與我一起工作的羅馬尼亞訓練小組告訴我SPG-9無後座力炮雖然可以運用在直射與間接火力支援上,但我們並沒有教阿富汗部隊如何運用間接火力支援的方式,根本的原因在於他們大部分的人並沒有足夠的教育程度去了解如何讓間接火力有效的發揮。

總結來說,阿富汗國軍從來就不是建立在沒有聯軍空中支援下作戰的部隊。 美軍的空中火力撤離後,他們的作戰能力就大幅度受到限制,而阿富汗部隊部隊與部隊間的人員素質差異極大。

我共事過的很多阿富汗軍官與士官都很專業,但也很多腐敗分子毫無軍事領導素養,只是藉由賄絡來得到不太有機會參與戰鬥的單位與職務。

阿富汗陸軍的現狀就想1930年代的中國陸軍,有些好的,但更多的是奇差無比! 沒錯,阿富汗陸軍是有問題的,不過塔利班從同樣的人口裡招募戰士也遭遇到阿富汗陸軍相同的問題。 美軍與聯軍不可能永遠留在阿富汗,而撤離空中支, 抽掉了後勤體系,這樣的作法極有可能讓阿富汗陸軍走向末路。

按照目前的局勢走向來看,阿富汗將會重演陷入1990年代的內戰情況,這對阿富汗人民是件悲劇。 長期戰爭會摧毀建物與一切基礎設施,但更大的傷害是對於其文化與社會的摧殘。

對我個人而言,最困難的地方不是在於訓練阿富汗部隊使用高科技武器或是戰術,而是對於無法分辨邏輯與情緒的差別,又毫無批判性思考能力的人去解釋為甚麼某些事是必須去做的。這才是這場戰爭中最大的破壞與災難。」
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